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the literature in carbon markets and climate mitigation has generated considerable enthusiasm among public officials and civil engineers who are interested in mitigation, adaptation, and disaster risk management (see chapter 7.4.3 for details). a systematic and comprehensive approach to risk management and mitigation (combined proactive and reactive) is adopted (section 7.3). although this will reduce vulnerability, it is possible to reduce vulnerability to climate change and climate related disasters through risk management and mitigation (hurlbert 2018a 109 ).
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one of the main reasons for change is the negative impacts of climate change, which include sea level rise, erosion and flooding, impacts on food security, and increases in diseases such as malaria and dengue fever (intergovernmental panel on climate change 2007, p. 17). a growing body of evidence demonstrates that adaptation can enhance the adaptive capacity of vulnerable communities by improving local physical, social and institutional resilience, and by increasing adaptive capacity at the system level and across sectors (undp 2018 1666 ). natural disasters such as tropical cyclones, floods and droughts are on the rise, as are the impacts of longer term climatic changes such as sea level rise, ocean acidification and the loss of water bodies (henson 2018 1667 ). to effectively address these issues, adaptation must be seen as part of the wider resilience cycle (henson 2018). resilience management consists of the entire cycle of five dimensions of resilience management: preparation, prevention, mitigation, response and recovery (henson 2018). in other words, resilience is not just about taking risks, but about the risks we are willing to accept (undp 2018). adaptation is the process of identifying, reducing, preventing or managing the negative impacts of climate change in the context of vulnerability, taking into account the local context and specific knowledge and skills (undp 2018). a recent systematic review of 113 resilience assessments found that only 5% of assessments included the direct impact of climate change (undp 2018). the authors of the review also suggest that there is a need for more holistic approaches to resilience, that recognise the importance of integrating climate change into resilience planning (klein et al. 2018 1668 ).