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Benjamin Wood
Benjamin Wood

Existentialism Basic Writings Second Edition Pdf !!INSTALL!!


This book offers a brief introduction to the thought of four figures central to existential philosophy--Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Heidegger, and Sartre. An introductory chapter presents the basic perspective and concerns of existentialism, and describes its place in the history of philosophy. Similar introductions are provided for each of the four philosophers, followed by selections from their major works. Background readings are also excerpted from works by Hegel and Husserl. No index. c. Book News Inc.




Existentialism Basic Writings Second Edition Pdf


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What distinguishes existentialism from other movements in theintellectual history of the West is how it stretched far beyond theliterary and academic worlds. Its ideas are captured in films by IngmarBergman, Michelangelo Antonioni, Jean-Luc Goddard, Akira Kurosawa, andTerrence Malick. Its moods are expressed in the paintings of EdvardMunch, Marcel Duchamp, Pablo Picasso, Paul Cézanne, and EdwardHopper and in the vitiated forms of the sculptor Alberto Giocometti.Its emphasis on freedom and the struggle for self-creation informed theradical and emancipatory politics of Martin Luther King Jr. and MalcolmX as well as the writings of Black intellectuals such as Ralph Ellison,Richard Wright, and W.E.B. Du Bois. Its engagement with therelationship between faith and freedom and the incomprehensibility ofGod shaped theological debates through the lectures and writings ofKarl Barth, Paul Tillich, and Martin Buber, among others. And, with itspenetrating analyses of anxiety and the importance of self-realization,the movement has had a profound impact in the development of humanisticand existential approaches to psychotherapy in the work of a wide rangeof theorists, including R.D. Laing, Rollo May, Viktor Frankl, and IrvinYalom.


Gabriel Marcel, long before coining the term "existentialism", introduced important existentialist themes to a French audience in his early essay "Existence and Objectivity" (1925) and in his Metaphysical Journal (1927).[70] A dramatist as well as a philosopher, Marcel found his philosophical starting point in a condition of metaphysical alienation: the human individual searching for harmony in a transient life. Harmony, for Marcel, was to be sought through "secondary reflection", a "dialogical" rather than "dialectical" approach to the world, characterized by "wonder and astonishment" and open to the "presence" of other people and of God rather than merely to "information" about them. For Marcel, such presence implied more than simply being there (as one thing might be in the presence of another thing); it connoted "extravagant" availability, and the willingness to put oneself at the disposal of the other.[71]


Heidegger read Sartre's work and was initially impressed, commenting: "Here for the first time I encountered an independent thinker who, from the foundations up, has experienced the area out of which I think. Your work shows such an immediate comprehension of my philosophy as I have never before encountered."[84] Later, however, in response to a question posed by his French follower Jean Beaufret,[85] Heidegger distanced himself from Sartre's position and existentialism in general in his Letter on Humanism.[86] Heidegger's reputation continued to grow in France during the 1950s and 1960s. In the 1960s, Sartre attempted to reconcile existentialism and Marxism in his work Critique of Dialectical Reason. A major theme throughout his writings was freedom and responsibility.


A major offshoot of existentialism as a philosophy is existentialist psychology and psychoanalysis, which first crystallized in the work of Otto Rank, Freud's closest associate for 20 years. Without awareness of the writings of Rank, Ludwig Binswanger was influenced by Freud, Edmund Husserl, Heidegger, and Sartre. A later figure was Viktor Frankl, who briefly met Freud as a young man.[112] His logotherapy can be regarded as a form of existentialist therapy. The existentialists would also influence social psychology, antipositivist micro-sociology, symbolic interactionism, and post-structuralism, with the work of thinkers such as Georg Simmel[113] and Michel Foucault. Foucault was a great reader of Kierkegaard even though he almost never refers this author, who nonetheless had for him an importance as secret as it was decisive.[114]


Anxiety's importance in existentialism makes it a popular topic in psychotherapy. Therapists often offer existentialist philosophy as an explanation for anxiety. The assertion is that anxiety is manifested of an individual's complete freedom to decide, and complete responsibility for the outcome of such decisions. Psychotherapists using an existentialist approach believe that a patient can harness his anxiety and use it constructively. Instead of suppressing anxiety, patients are advised to use it as grounds for change. By embracing anxiety as inevitable, a person can use it to achieve his full potential in life. Humanistic psychology also had major impetus from existentialist psychology and shares many of the fundamental tenets. Terror management theory, based on the writings of Ernest Becker and Otto Rank, is a developing area of study within the academic study of psychology. It looks at what researchers claim are implicit emotional reactions of people confronted with the knowledge that they will eventually die.[116]


In India particularly, it is the duty of Christians now to draw from this rich heritage the elements compatible with their faith, in order to enrich Christian thought. In this work of discernment, which finds its inspiration in the Council's Declaration Nostra Aetate, certain criteria will have to be kept in mind. The first of these is the universality of the human spirit, whose basic needs are the same in the most disparate cultures. The second, which derives from the first, is this: in engaging great cultures for the first time, the Church cannot abandon what she has gained from her inculturation in the world of Greco-Latin thought. To reject this heritage would be to deny the providential plan of God who guides his Church down the paths of time and history. This criterion is valid for the Church in every age, even for the Church of the future, who will judge herself enriched by all that comes from today's engagement with Eastern cultures and will find in this inheritance fresh cues for fruitful dialogue with the cultures which will emerge as humanity moves into the future. Thirdly, care will need to be taken lest, contrary to the very nature of the human spirit, the legitimate defense of the uniqueness and originality of Indian thought be confused with the idea that a particular cultural tradition should remain closed in its difference and affirm itself by opposing other traditions.


Edited and with an Introduction by Gordon MarinoBasic Writings of Existentialism, unique to the Modern Library, presents the writings of key nineteenth- and twentieth-century thinkers broadly united by their belief that because life has no inherent meaning humans can discover, we must determine meaning for ourselves. This anthology brings together into one volume the most influential and commonly taught works of existentialism. Contributors include Simone de Beauvoir, Albert Camus, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Ralph Ellison, Martin Heidegger, Søren Kierkegaard, Friedrich Nietzsche, Jean-Paul Sartre, and Miguel de Unamuno y Jugo.


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